Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Understanding Maslows Theory of Self-Actualization

Psychologist Abraham Maslows theory of self-actualization contends that individuals are motivated to fulfill their potential in life. Self-actualization is typically discussed in conjunction with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which posits that self-actualization sits at the top of a hierarchy above four lower needs. Origins of the Theory During the mid-20th century, the theories of psychoanalysis and behaviorism were prominent in the field of psychology. Though largely very different, these two perspectives shared a general assumption that people are driven by forces beyond their control. In response to this assumption, a new perspective, called humanistic psychology, arose.  The humanists wanted to offer a more optimistic, agentive perspective on human striving. The theory of self-actualization emerged out of this humanistic perspective. Humanistic psychologists claimed that people are driven by higher needs, particularly the need to actualize the self. In contrast to the psychoanalysts and behaviorists who focused on psychological problems, Maslow developed his theory by studying psychologically healthy individuals. The Hierarchy of Needs Maslow contextualized his theory of self-actualization within a hierarchy of needs. The hierarchy represents five needs arranged from lowest to highest, as follows: Physiological needs: These include needs that keep us alive, such as food, water, shelter, warmth, and sleep.Safety needs: The need to feel secure, stable, and unafraid.Love and belongingness needs: The need to belong socially by developing relationships with friends and family.Esteem needs: The need to feel both (a) self-esteem based on one’s achievements and abilities and (b) recognition and respect from others.Self-actualization needs: The need to pursue and fulfill one’s unique potentials. When Maslow originally explained the hierarchy in 1943, he stated that higher needs generally won’t be pursued until lower needs are met. However, he added, a need does not have to be completely satisfied for someone to move onto the next need in the hierarchy. Instead, the needs must be partially satisfied, meaning that an individual  can pursue all five needs, at least to some extent, at the same time.   Maslow included  caveats in order to explain why certain individuals might pursue higher needs before lower ones. For example, some people who are especially driven by the desire to express themselves creatively may pursue self-actualization even if their lower needs are unmet. Similarly, individuals who are particularly dedicated to pursuing higher ideals may achieve self-actualization despite adversity that prevents them from meeting their lower needs. Defining Self-Actualization To Maslow, self-actualization is the ability to become the best version of oneself. Maslow stated, â€Å"This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.†Ã‚   Of course, we all hold different values, desires, and capacities. As a result, self-actualization will manifest itself differently in different people. One person may self-actualize through artistic expression, while another will do so by becoming a parent, and yet another by inventing new technologies. Maslow believed that, because of the difficulty of fulfilling the four lower needs, very few people would successfully become self-actualized, or would only do so in a limited capacity. He proposed that the people who can successfully self actualize share certain characteristics. He called these people self-actualizers. According to Maslow, self-actualizers  share the ability to achieve peak experiences, or moments of joy and transcendence. While anyone can have a peak experience, self-actualizers have them more frequently. In addition, Maslow suggested that self-actualizers tend to be highly creative, autonomous, objective, concerned about humanity, and accepting of themselves and others. Maslow contended  that some people are simply not motivated to self-actualize. He made this point by differentiating between deficiency needs, or D-needs, which encompass the four lower needs in his hierarchy, and being needs, or B-needs. Maslow said that D-needs come from external sources, while B-needs come from within the individual. According to Maslow, self-actualizers are more motivated to pursue B-needs than non-self-actualizers. Criticism and Further Study The theory of self-actualization has been criticized for its lack of empirical support and for its suggestion that lower needs must be met before self-actualization is possible. In 1976, Wahba and Bridwell investigated these issues by reviewing a number of studies exploring different parts of the theory. They found only inconsistent support for the theory, and limited support for the proposed progression through Maslow’s hierarchy. However, the idea that some people are more motivated by B-needs than D-needs was supported by their research, lending increased evidence to the idea that some people may be more naturally motivated towards self-actualization than others. A 2011 study by Tay and Diener explored the satisfaction of needs that roughly matched those in Maslow’s hierarchy in 123 countries. They found that the needs were largely universal, but that the fulfillment of one need was not dependent on the fulfillment of another. For example, an individual can benefit from self-actualization even if they have not met their need to belong. However, the study also showed that when most citizens in a society have their basic needs met, more people in that society focus on pursuing a fulfilling and meaningful life. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that self-actualization can be attained before all of the  four other needs are met, but that having ones most  basic  needs met makes self-actualization much more likely.   The evidence for Maslow’s theory is not conclusive. Future research involving self-actualizers is needed in order to learn more. Yet given its importance to the history of psychology, the theory of self-actualization will maintain its place in the pantheon of classic psychological theories.   Sources Compton, William C. â€Å"Self-Actualization Myths: What Did Maslow Really Say?† Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 2018, pp.1-18, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0022167818761929Maslow, Abraham H. â€Å"A Theory of Human Motivation.† Psychological Review, vol. 50, no. 4, 1943, pp. 370-396, http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htmMcAdams, Dan. The Person: An Introduction to the Science of Personality Psychology. 5th ed., Wiley, 2008.McLeod, Saul. â€Å"Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.† Simply Psychology, 21 May 2018. https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.htmlTay, Louis, and Ed Diener. â€Å"Needs and Subjective Well-Being Around the World.† Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 101, no. 2, 2011, 354-365, http://academic.udayton.edu/jackbauer/Readings%20595/Tay%20Diener%2011%20needs%20WB%20world%20copy.pdfWahba, Mahmoud A., and Lawrence G. Bridwell. â€Å"Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Th eory.† Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 15, 1976, 212-240, http://larrybridwell.com/Maslo.pdf

Modern Technology, the Unseen Dangers Essay - 1514 Words

As time goes on, the world around us continues to change even more rapidly than it already has. All the time new gadgets and gizmos continue to be introduced to the market to satisfy the needs of the consumers. Social networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter allow people from all over the world to be connected. With the help of these social networking sites and cell phones people have become more easily accessible in the previous years than ever before. At first glance these modern technologies appear to be nothing but helpful conveniences that society has become accustomed to having , but as technology advances, our privacy continues to decrease without most people even realizing it. Cell Phones, everyone knows what a†¦show more content†¦This all seems like something you would find in a science fiction novel, but the possibilities of such things are happening right before our very eyes. One example of technology getting the power to be able to locate you wherever you are is participatory sensing, â€Å"participatory sensing is research that uses mobile phones to collect data for personal or social projects† (Shilton, pg 52). There are many of these research studies going on but one in particular is currently under development at UCLA’s Center for Embedded Networked Sensing it’s called the Personal Environmental Impact Report (PEIR). You might be wondering how PEIR and other participatory sensing projects could be putting your privacy in danger, well let me explain how the PIER project works. According to the PIER website (http://peir.cens.ucla.edu/) the participants in the PIER study walk around going about their normal day for weeks at a time with an application on their cell phones that calculates their exposure to air pollution and carbon footprints and by referencing GPS and cell towers, the phones upload participants’ locations every few seconds (Shilton, pg 52). This project is meant to help scientists in Los Angeles’s pinpoint where air pollution is the worst so that it can be reported on the news and so that special attention can be given to these areas. This information is uploaded to the Southern California weather database so that it can be reviewed but how can weShow MoreRelatedAn Examination of the Modernization in the American Society in Marianne Wiggins ´ Evidence of Things Unseen1198 Words   |  5 PagesThe novel Evidence of Things Unseen by Marianne Wiggins identifies several ways in which the American Society modernized during the interwar period, the time period between World War 1 and World War 2. To be considered modern a country had to become industrialized. Industrialism is a way of life that encompasses profound economic, social, political, and cultural changes. (Modernization) America made three profound social changes which modernized the nation. The American government trie d to improveRead MoreCell Phone Safety : The Most Cherished Work Of Mine1520 Words   |  7 Pagesit was an awesome subject to tackle, and I hope this paper can help people think twice about cell phone safety. Unseen Dangers: The Reality of Cell Phones The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of modern technology, creating fruitful moments in history that paved the groundwork for the Information Age. The advancement of computer chip technology allowed us to create the modern day cell phones, revolutionizing the concept of communication. Today our lives depend on these mobile phones, whichRead MoreGlobal Warming And The Unsustainable Views Of Achievement1227 Words   |  5 Pagesworry until late, when man realized just how much power they have over the wellbeing of the planet. Global warming and the unsustainable views of achievement has led to an unseen conflict of modern day man against an unseen, yet dangerous ticking time bomb. Mankind is making large strides in developing our cities and technology , but its excessive rate of growth puts future generations at risk of extinction; therefore, changing the world community s thought process, communication strategies andRead MoreDo Internet Service Providers Have a Responsibi lity to Regulate the Content That Is Available on the World Wide Web? Is the Presence and Ease of Availability of Pornography to the General Public a Tribute to Free Speech1116 Words   |  5 PagesOver the years, society has found ways to record sexual experiences via paint, print, film and with recent technology, the Internet. Society has used every technological step forward to portray the sexual act. With each step forward this has increased the pornography forum to a broader audience. This audience is being propelled by a powerful urge to see images of sex. Nowadays pornography and the Internet, go hand in hand. However who is regulating this material, the website companies want to makeRead MoreThe Importance Of Power And Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely Essay1332 Words   |  6 Pagessome higher power watching over us. For us, this is our modern example of Panopticism. Panopticism came about when Michael Foucault was initially writing about Jeremy’s Bentham’s theoretical institutional building, the panopticon. It is basically a model of power and enforcement, and the coordination of that power between groups and individuals. On a grander level, the NSA and government over watch is a steady example of a Panopticism in modern day, as they have been undergoing low key investigationsRead MoreCase Study Essay1291 Words   |  6 Pagesdependent modern day society is on public administration to handle chaotic or unexpected situations. In exploring various aspects of this catastrophe, Martin explores the following: (1). A coal company sensitive only to profit incentives. (2). State regulatory agencies inadequately enforcing mine safety legislation. (3). Federal officials and mine unions complacent about a growing problem. (4). The miners incapable of protecting themselves against the impending disaster. Ultimately, â€Å"Modern societyRead MoreThe American Piloted Space Program1302 Words   |  6 PagesThe twentieth century brought about a host of new technologies in the United States. Some would argue that all new inventions are a triumph of human ingenuity and should be utilized no matter the cost. However, there is evidence to suggest that these inventions, and the promise of future ones, have narrowed the gaze of the American people. New technologies of the twentieth century are beneficial in and of themselves. But those in power have used them unwisely, picking and choosing what to fundRead MoreGod, Science, And Imagination991 Words   |  4 Pagescitation â€Å"more and more of us know that after death there is nothing†. If anyone doesn’t know, does it mean there is nothing? In Berry’s words Weinberg tries to power his opinion like those politicians in the battle of chair, or in the field of technology, science and religion. The author denounces Weinberg’s act of total humiliation to the fundamentalists of religion. He believes the argument must be conducted in absence of mate rial evidence which stands as proof in lab or court and it can neitherRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal? Essay1529 Words   |  7 Pagesthe laws that are currently being put in place everywhere, abortions are expected to decline, but some people still do not understand the dangers to them. Abortion should be considered illegal in the United States due to the understanding that technically it is murder; therefore, laws such as Roe vs Wade should be repealed indefinitely. One of the most unseen reasons to why abortion should be illegal is that abortion is murder. The definition of murder is unlawfully killing of a human being. IfRead MoreChallenges Facing Modern Christians5546 Words   |  23 PagesCHALLENGES FACING MODERN CHRISTIANS SUBMITTED BY: SUZANNE GITHAE (08-1697) SCHOOL OF COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGES AND PERFORMING ARTS DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION MAJOR: ELECTRONIC MEDIA SUBMITTED TO: Dr. MUTHONI GACHARI SCHOOL OF COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGES AND PERFORMING ARTS DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND PERFORMING ARTS DUE DATE: 23rd NOVEMBER 2012 DAYSTAR UNIVERSITY NAIROBI CAMPUS RELIGION CHALLENGES FACING MODERN CHRISTIANS Christians

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Influences that Shape Pips Character in Great...

Influences that Shape Pips Character in Great Expectations ‘Great Expectations’ tells the story of a young boy named Pip. It shows us how his life is drastically turned around at the early age of seven, following the accidental meeting of the convict Magwich. There are many different events ranging from his meeting the convict, and Miss Havisham, his falling in love with Estella and his fortunate gaining of an unknown benefactor, which enables Pip to achieve more promising things in life. These events all play a huge part in how Pip is to turn out. And this cocktail of events greatly influences moulds and shapes the person he is and is to become. There are also some much less obvious ways that†¦show more content†¦Mrs Joe is often scaring Pip in saying that, â€Å"People are put in the hulks because the murder, and because they rob and forge, and do all sorts of bad; and they always start by asking questions† it means that Pip when he does speak is often very weary of the reaction, and the consequences of it. It also leads him to pose his questions more politely and carefully, â€Å"Mrs Joe†¦I should like to know- if you wouldn’t much mind- where the firing comes from?† it shows how scared he is of how people, Mrs Joe in particular, are going to react. In addition, children are constantly being tested and watched by adults to see if they slip up any way. This leads Pip to be very careful of his actions and very self-conscious of himself. For example, when he stole from the pantry for the convict he is always worried and conscience of what he has done, â€Å"I got up and went down stairs; every board along the way, and every crack in every board, calling after me, Stop thief! And get up Mrs Joe!† He is also often present when adults made rude remarks about children and how horrible and bad they are. Mr Wopsle compares children to pigs saying, â€Å"The gluttony of swine is put before us, as an example to the young. In addition, Mr Hubble refers to them as â€Å"Naturally wicious† this just goes to show that Pip is aware of the hatred towards children and doesShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Great Expectations 1026 Words   |  5 PagesEarly Life Influences In novels, character development, If not always, relies upon the doings and variations of other characters they interact with. In the infamous novel, Great Expectations, Pip’s brother-in-law, Joe, is considered to be one of the most dependable and loyal characters to Pip, despite having adverse personalities. For example, where Pip is known to be zealous and eager to move forward with things at almost any cost, Joe is more of a steady, content man who would much rather stayRead MoreEssay on What Shapes Pip’s Character in Great Expectations?1682 Words   |  7 PagesWhat influences shape the character of young Pip in Great Expectations? â€Å"Great Expectations†, by Charles Dickens, is an enthralling tale of love and fortune. The story is set in the period of Dickens’ childhood, from 1810 to approximately 1830, and it is likely that memories of his own youth inspired Dickens to write the novel. The main character, Pip, is a gentle and humble boy whose character and personality undergo major transformations throughout the novel. He is influenced by many charactersRead MoreSocial Advancement Versus Affection, Loyalty, And Conscience1114 Words   |  5 Pagesto work hard to gain the respect of others or of their fellow citizens. In Charles Dickens Great Expectations, the main character Pip realizes this and longs to become a part of the upper class society to receive its perks. This bildungsroman of Pip’s life shows how social advancement is not more important than affection, loyalty, and self conscience through the use of details, symbols and motifs. Pip’s early life is detailed to show that it is not an ideal one. With both his parents deceased,Read MoreAnalysis: Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens951 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent story as most children had to go through many hardships and sufferings, in order to satisfy the needs of their family. Great Expectations is set in the Victorian age and Charles Dickens portrays the years of childhood as at time of confusion, darkness and terror. Nevertheless, this unfavorable childhood helps Pip mature as a person in many different ways. Pips experiences with multiple people when he was a child provides important stepping stones for his journey in becoming a successfulRead MoreGreat Expectations Good And Evil Essay1455 Words   |  6 PagesIn Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, characters morals easily fall on a spectrum. Great Expectations tells the story of a boy named Pip who grows up in a bleak village, experiences high society via an eccentric Miss Havisham, acq uiesces to great expectations from an anonymous benefactor, and becomes a gentleman via those expectations. The characters of Great Expectations, when their entire character arc is considered, easily fall onto the spectrum of good and evil, with some characters beingRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations And Oliver Twist1057 Words   |  5 Pagesthem and can embrace strangers as family. Charitable strangers can also teach children to act with benevolence and give them an honorable role model to follow. These acts of kindness can drastically change the character of the poor child. In Charles Dickens’ two novels, Great Expectations and Oliver Twist, Dickens challenges the conventional idea of parentage and suggests that through generosity anyone can become a guardian and have a major impact on the emerging identity of children. Therefore,Read MoreDickens Techniques of Characterisation in Great Expectations1117 Words   |  5 Pagesof Characterisation in Great Expectati ons Many characters in Great Expectations are a rich and varied mix of personalities, in particular Pip, Joe Gargery and Mrs. Joe. The physical description of the characters is an example of the techniques used by Charles Dickens. Other techniques include the speech and habits of the characters, the characters interaction with others, the choice of the characters name and their surroundingsRead MoreDickens Life Reflected In The Character Of Pip945 Words   |  4 PagesBoth Miss Havisham and Magwitch are two key characters who shape Pip’s life and dreams. Pip himself is a young boy whose story reflects that of Charles Dickens, the author. When Dickens was twelve his father was imprisoned for debt, much like Magwitch- the father-figure in Pip’s life who was also a convict. Dickens was then sent to work at a boot-blacking factory where his mother forced him to work even after his father was released. Similarly, neither Mrs Joe nor Miss Havisham (the mother-figures)Read More Discuss how origins are explored through realist and other conventions1681 Words   |  7 Pagesrealist and other conventions referring to Great Expectations and Frankenstein. Realism is the presentation of art to show life as it is. Realist fiction is the platform which allows the reader to be addressed in such a way that he or she is always, in some way, saying, Yes. Thats it, thats how it really is. The realist novel, in trying to show us the world as it is, often reaffirms, in the last instance, the way things are. In Great Expectations, and Frankenstein, we are exposed to theRead More Unexpected Influences in Great Expectations1568 Words   |  7 PagesCharles Dickens Great Expectations, the most influential characters on Pip are people who would appear to be minor female characters in the novel. One would assume since the time of Great Expectations was set the first half of the 19th Century, which was the time of the Victorian Era, that the men of the novel would have a greater influence on the women of the novel. However, Pip is impacted greatly by women throughout his life, even more so than men. Pips greatest female influence in life was Estella

America Needs Immigration Reform Essay - 1034 Words

Immigration reduction refers to a movement in the United States that advocates a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into the country. Steps advocated for reducing the numbers of immigrants include advocating stronger action to prevent illegal entry and illegal immigration, and reductions in non-immigrant temporary work visas (such as H-1B and L-1). Some advocate a tightening of the requirements for legal immigration requirements to reduce total numbers, or move the proportions of legal immigrants away from those on family reunification programs to skills-based criteria. Back in the 1700s, as English men and women traveled to American land in the Mayflower, among other ships, the foreigners were considered â€Å"immigrants.† Many of†¦show more content†¦As discussed by many, immigrants typically are known to come to America to pursue a sense of freedom that they are not finding in their home country. Whether it is the opportunity for a higher-paying job, a way to practice religion without persecution, or the opportunity to start a family in a safer environment, many immigrants have similar plans. And while people who lean towards a negative outlook on immigration may say that these people take Americans’ jobs and land, others think that immigration gives United States n economic edge in the world, bringing culture to our country. As far as reducing the immigration and restricting the policies in the United States more than they are now, my standing is that we should not. Immigrants bring innovative ideas and an entrepreneurial spirit to the U.S. economy. Because they have close contact with other counties, they enhance the U.S.’s ability to trade and thrive globally. Immigrants also tend to fill jobs that Americans can’t or won’t take, and also raise demand for goods as well as supply. Another argument for stricter immigration is that these aliens are draining funds, and that taxpayers’ paychecks are being exhausted to support these foreigners. Contrary to popular belief however, NAS found a study that the â€Å"typical immigrant and his or her offspring will pay a net $80,000 more in taxes during their lifetime {in America} than they collect in government services.† Of course, the restriction ofShow MoreRelatedThe Immigration System Of The United States Of America And The Need For Immigration Reform2234 Words   |  9 Pages Need For Immigration Reform in the U.S. Ramesh Bhatta Wilmington University â€Æ' Abstract The current immigration system is broken and have not been updated fully for about 20 years. The broken immigration is a big problem to the U.S. It is keeping families apart, lowering the wages of workers, resulted in black economy, and added to the threat to national security among many others. The purpose of this research paper is to identify some of the problems created by the current immigration systemRead MoreImmigration Problem Of Illegal Immigration1530 Words   |  7 PagesAmerica can easily be defined as the greatest country in the world, but every country has its own unique problems. One of its greatest problems is that of illegal immigration. Recently, the country has been made aware that its illegal immigration problem that it is working so hard to correct, is frankly failing. To date, it has seemingly not done its best to correct the issue though. America must fix the major problem of illegal immigration before it becomes too out of hand. The existing AmericanRead MoreI mmigration Reform Of The United States1641 Words   |  7 PagesTutor: Institution: Immigration Reform ​Immigration is defined as the act of leaving your country of origin and going to another different one to stay there permanently (Dictionary.com). Reasons, why people escape or leave their original countries, are varied; ranging from war, poverty, natural occurrences such as earthquakes while others just take the step for fun purposes. A reform is a change from the way things were done originally and make them better. Therefore, immigration reform is a term thatRead MoreThe Need for Immigration Reform1193 Words   |  5 Pages There are not many people who know that there is war going on within America. A war, that is capable of impacting the future of America. Millions of â€Å"Dreamers† are fighting to be recognized as American citizens. In recent months and years, the debate on immigration reform has been heated and often uninformed. Every president mentions in his speech to take action on immigration reform. But unfortunately he ends up taking action against immigrants by deporting them. Is the country founded byRead MoreWhy We Need Immigration Reform1168 Words   |  5 Pages Why we need immigration reform Immigration is important to America and so is Immigration reform. The laws we have in place are unfair and unsuccessful to all of us. In order to progress we need to look at our country’s past to advance in our future. Our economy and society can learn and advance with immigration reform. Our laws on Immigration need an upgrade and most politicians would agree that we need immigration reform also. Immigration reform is the renewal of our immigration laws, but littleRead MoreWhy We Need Immigration Reform1168 Words   |  5 Pages Why we need immigration reform Immigration is important to America and so is Immigration reform. The laws we have in place are unfair and unsuccessful to all of us. In order to progress we need to look in our country’s past to advance to our future. Our economy and society can learn and advance with immigration reform. Our laws on Immigration need an upgrade and most politicians would agree that we need immigration reform also. Immigration reform is the renewal of our immigration laws, but littleRead MoreImmigration Senior Project1544 Words   |  7 PagesSenior Project Immigration Obama’s Immigration Reform Xihara Rosario Class 172 Mrs. Prysler Northeast High School Outline 1. Introduction What is my topic? Why I chose it? What do I already know about my topic? What I expect to learn? 2. Body Definition of Immigration Types of Immigration The first habitants in United State were Immigrants Immigration reform issues right now Implements that reform needs to happen Immigration outcome and implications for AmericansRead MoreThe Issue Of Immigration Reform Essay1401 Words   |  6 Pages Immigration Reform Tony Smith HSE 430 November 17, 2016 Nick R. North Immigration Reform Introduction Public Opinion The American public seems to be aware of the issue in general, but is short of the details. There has certainly been a healthy amount of media coverage of immigration reform, but as the coverage itself is unclear as to how best to frame the problems, it mostly informs about the existence of the issue rather than informing about the issue itself. As such, there is conflictingRead MoreImmigration Reform1221 Words   |  5 PagesImmigration Reform is a serious and current issue in politics, in government, and in the lives of millions of people. Immigration reform is a term used by the American government and in politics. It refers to the changes to the current immigration policies in the United States. â€Å"Reform† is defined as a â€Å"change into an improved form or condition, by amending faults or abuses.† So, in a nutshell, Immigration Reform means the improvement of the law regarding how we, the United States, handle immigrationRead MoreA Broken System Of My Mothe r1716 Words   |  7 Pagestheir families. Many come to America for the promise of freedom and opportunity. But currently the immigration system in the America is broken. Families are separated, immigrant workers are exploited, people die trying to cross the border, and there is rampant discrimination against immigrants. The way we behave toward newcomers ought to demonstrate the morals of fairness and equality that identify America as a country. This is why we are in need of a new immigration policy that keeps families together

All Quiet On The Western Front Human Experience Essay Example For Students

All Quiet On The Western Front Human Experience Essay In the novel All quiet on the western front by Erich Maria Remarque we see clearly that war is a most terrible experience, with its great horror and ability to destroy a human, not only physically but also mentally. However accompanying this horror is an extraordinary comradeship and friendship that is seen in both the sad and happy times bringing the soldiers together to cope with that horror of the war. This comradeship seen in the novel is the only value that has been retained by the soldiers on the front, despite the loss of all others. Towards the end of the novel it is clear that the only thing keeping the soldiers going is this comradeship, which seems to soften and break through the horror of the war. The horror of war is seen right through the book from the beginning to the end, with a large emphasis on the destruction caused by war and the loss of humanity and innocence. An example of this horror is the graveyard battle scene in which a recruit, who only minutes before was described as being child-like, is hit badly in the hip which is graphically described as one mass of mincemeat and bone splinters. Just before the man is hit, a horse is hit causing it to cry, which is unbearable for the soldiers around it as it reminds them of the innocence of nature that is caught up in the war. However, the men near them who are wounded, are ignored as the soldiers are so accustomed to their sound of death, which shows the true role of the horses death to the reader. These are clear emphasises on the horror, shock and the loss of their innocence seen throughout this chapter, and the rest of the novel. Throughout the book we see the soldiers lose faith in their values that have been drilled into them over the years from school to the army. They begin to realise that the values taught to them are merely tradition or words to encourage, and in fact serve little or no use in the front. An example of this is when the men have to return the new clothes given to them for the Kaiser inspection after being on the front: rags are whats real at the front. This shows how the men no longer feel that there is need to dress up in the army, as it is against the point and deceptive by not giving the real horror of war and the army. Pauls line of It must be all lies and of no account when the culture of a thousand years could not prevent this stream of blood being poured out, expresses this feeling clearly. When it seems that the men have no reason to live with the great horror around them, they  continue to fight on for one enduring value, friendship. This value binds the men together their whole lifetime. This value makes the war a great experience in a single aspect, and that is that it causes people to become extremely good friends that act much like family, which in other circumstances without the war would have never become friends, talked or even met. The war caused Paul to become extremely good friends with Kat, who seemed more like a father figure, so much so that when Kat died Paul could not believe it and felt hopeless: The anguish of solitude rises up in me. When Kat is taken away I will not have one friend left. .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e , .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .postImageUrl , .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e , .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e:hover , .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e:visited , .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e:active { border:0!important; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e:active , .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ubfe653a07f0b6192429b5a38a33c0d7e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Symbolism in the Stranger EssayIt is clear throughout the book that the men feel that the war is horrible and extremely destructive, beyond anyones imagination that has not experienced the death. Battle scenes especially emphasize the horror of the war, as they are descriptive and give much detail into death and destruction. By relating the death to that of nature, Remarque highlights the innocence of the victims of the terrible human experience. The values of the soldiers are reduced to one sole basic value after all the horrors of war, that is comradeship. The friendship of the men is increased dramatically, causing the men to continue and not give up. Many experiences w ith comrades in the war would be considered great as they brought about needed happiness, even amongst the horror of the war, seen in All quiet on the western front.

Essay Example Licensing in fashion industry Example For Students

Essay Example: Licensing in fashion industry What is the meaning of licensing agreement? The verb to license is synonymous of give permission. A licensing agreement is an authorization to use licensed material granted by a party named: Licensor to another party called: Licensee. This is a contract between this two parties. The purpose of a licensing agreement is the authorized use of the licensees trademark, by the licensee, specified in the terms of the contract. We know two different types of licensing based in the use of common trademarks or famous trademarks. The Licensing in fashion industries is based in the use of famous brands such us Airman, Dolce Cabana, Pravda and other mansion. A license under intellectual property has several components such us: ?+ Term ?+ Auditing: quality control monitoring ?+ Advertising and other costs connected to promotion ?+ Exclusivity ?+ Termination: Renewal ?+ Infringement: Litigation The assignment of a license often depends on specific contractual terms. The licensing agreement is only applicable for a particular geographic region, Just for a certain period of time or barely for a stage in the value chain. L 1. Advantages of a licensing agreement. When a society decides to put in place a licensing agreement must assess what are the benefits that will arise from the relationship between Licensor and Licensee. ?+ Advantages for Licensor: as in all the contract is important to have a return. A licensing agreement is useful to enlarge the societys geographic market; to decentralized and differentiate the offer in order to reduce the business risks; to increase the recognition, popularity and fame of her core brands, giving the same image of trademark in each store and in all points of sales; financial benefits in remarry market due to positive feedback in licensees products and in secondary market because of royalties in licensees sales. ?+ Advantages for Licensee: industrial benefits in order to increase the range of licensees products by making them more recognizable by supporting low costs to rise trademark distinctiveness. . 3 terms of the contract. A successful brand licensing requires a planned strategy: ?+ to determine core brands values in order to use them in the new category of products. ?+ to identify the level of differentiation desired. ?+ the achievement of leverage in the new category of products/services. . 4 several risks for the parties. One of the risks for licensor is due to the lack of monetary return: Royalties. But the major risk is the loss of control regarding the uniqueness of the brand (the customer feel inaccessible the trademarks products). The licensees product are always not in line with the concept of trademark, so its value is blurred. The market confusion regarding the change of the trademarks strategic position that cause the disorientation of loyal costumer. The risk of lower quality of licensees products than the quality of licensees services, that bring consumers to Judge products not good enough to be acquired. The high cost of license agreement. The impossibility to have enough time and business to recoup the investments. The risk of management of unsold goods and inventories. The licensor and the licensee must discuss about the licensing agreement in order to decrease the risks. There are many clauses which the parties can establish to better define the terms of the contract in order to ameliorate the performance. The subject of the major clauses regards the fees beyond royalties, sub-licenses and the costs connected with promotion and advertising of trademarks products. The base of a good licensing agreement is the correct and clear information about the firm: its value, positioning and the quality of its image. 1. Rules about Licensing agreement in USA. The Layman act 1125: the mistake caused by any people who in commerce uses any word, name, symbol or the combination of both similar to another recognizable trademark could be liable in a civil action. According to the Layman act 1064 a petition to cancel a registration of trademark may be changed at any time if the trademark is used by the registrant or with his permission so as to misrepresent the reso urce of goods or services in connection with which the mark is used. 3 1. 6 Licensing agreement in European law. .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 , .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .postImageUrl , .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 , .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5:hover , .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5:visited , .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5:active { border:0!important; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5:active , .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5 .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u15d5653400dc268e5ac1ec932cd41ea5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Parisienne Fashion and Impressionism EssayArt 51 the rights of the owner of a community trademark must be revoked, the licensee is liable to misrepresent the public. Both in USA and in EX. the licensee run two typologies of risks: ?+ common repairs ?+ cancellation As we said in the first part of the essay the licensor has an economic advantage to defend the power and recognition of the trademark but he has also a Juridical interest not to lose the registration of trademark. 4 1. 7 How to defend the trademark. The licensor has two possibilities to preserve his trademark. Ђ?+ Ex ante he can includes in the licensing agreement clauses about monitoring and inspecting the q uality and the standards of the services provided. Licensees purpose and licensees interest must be aliened. ?+ Ex post the licensor could act against the licensee if he did not respect the contract (like the quality of the service) or if he forged the trademark. 2. 1 The brand Licensing. Introduction. The license agreement relates to a right granted by a permit, if there is not this authorization the use of the mark is an illegal act. The license agreement must not be confused with a permit that relates to a license for a shorter period of time. The brand licensing deals with the granting of licenses by those who own the trademark to those who are interested (individuals or companies) to use them in the production of the products, over a period of time and in a defined territory. The brand licensing, especially in the fashion industry, is used to extend own brands to products of an entirely different nature. The licensor has the advantages such as: being able to choose the products to be sold under license and authorize the sale of prototypes ND choose the best licensee. The benefits in a license agreement also concern the licensee, he may increase his market power by strengthening the brand through brand recognition, increase its sales going to extend the range of audiences served, develop models and sell them in special shops. Enter into a contract brings benefits to both of the parties: the licensee must paid periodically (monthly, semi-annually depending on terms of the contract signed by both parties) royalties to the licensor. And the licensee has a return on sales and investments with the exploitation of licensor s trademark. Most of the major Italian fashion industries enters into licensing agreements for ancillary products, such as perfumes, sunglasses, watches (an example is that of D or Airman) or for the production of knitwear, such as Ralph Lauren. The fashion licensing is the most widespread among the license agreements between industries. As we said before it mostly concerns the dissemination of products relating to health and beauty, accessories, clothing and household products. N some cases the brand owner decides to license the production, distribution and marketing of its core apparel categories, in other cases, he designer of the brand identifies specific categories that can be licensed by extending the brand into areas other than those of clothing. The licensor maintains strict control over the quality and the design. 2. 2 Airman case a practical example. We can see a practical example with the license agreement signed in 2011 between Airman and Ululation for the production and distribution of prescription frames and sunglasses. The Airman Group has decided not to renew the licensing agreement with Safari, expiring on December 31, 2012, in favor of Ululation. The licensing agreement with Ululation, anticipated with the signing of a letter of intent basis, in November 2011, for a ten-year exclusive license agreement for the design, production and distribution worldwide for collections of sunglasses and prescription eye-wear under the Giorgio Airman, Emporium Airman and a / X from 2013. .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 , .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .postImageUrl , .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 , .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4:hover , .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4:visited , .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4:active { border:0!important; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4:active , .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4 .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6e4d6d685b3579f4071da78895d128f4:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Fashion Film EssayAfter ten years of intense collaboration with Safari the Airman group decides not to renew the contract, a serious loss in the short period (150-200 million euros) for Safely that is certain to recover it in the long term thanks to licensing agreements with Polo Ralph Lauren ND Cline. Andrea Gouger, CEO of Ululation says: Back in 1988 Giorgio Airman and Ululation started a very successful Journey together: together we changed the world of eyeglasses which, previously perceived as mere functional instruments, evolved into aware and into indispensable fashion accessories. Airman is eponymous of excellence of Made in Italy and represents values which are perfectly in line with ours. We are therefore excited to work together again, in a partnership that will for sure be mutually beneficial, The market had already understood the impending ivories between Airman and Safely, favoring an agreement with Ululation who previously collaborated with the Group from 1988 to 2003, a long collaboration that led to explode the sunglasses and eyeglasses sector, making the glasses a real fashion accessory. The non-renewal of the license agreement between Airman and Ululation in 2003 was a surprise analyzing the close cooperation and sharing of innovative ideas between the two entrepreneurs. 2. 3 Michael Koru case a practical example. With this example we may analyze the key parts of the license agreement, between Michael Koru and P. R. China, which can often be considered common to all licensing agreements in the world of fashion industry regarding the manufacturing of the products.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Virtue of Aquinas and Machiavelli Essay Essay Example

Virtue of Aquinas and Machiavelli Essay Essay The author’s end in this essay is to measure the definition of virtuousness harmonizing to Aquinas and compare/contrast that with Machiavellian virtuousness. Following this rating the writer will try to discredit Machiavellian virtuousness as being shallow and impossible. Trusting on inquiry 55 from the Summa Theologiae and assorted chapters from The Prince. the writer hopes to put a solid and concrete statement against Machiavelli. It is deficient to compose of Aquinas without first adverting Aristotle and the relationship Thomas Aquinas had with his work. Aristotle writes at great length of the human good. The good for adult male. harmonizing to Aristotle. is an active usage of those modules which separate adult male from the remainder of nature. viz. ground and will. which are distinguishable from lower modules such as feeling or reaction. One rule that profoundly influenced Aquinas was Aristotle’s theory that the moral virtuousnesss are each an norm of two opposing human traits ( which is how the mean individual gauges ethical motives today whether they are witting of it or non ) . Courage is found between cowardliness and heedlessness. generousness between stinginess and extravagance. We will write a custom essay sample on Virtue of Aquinas and Machiavelli Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Virtue of Aquinas and Machiavelli Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Virtue of Aquinas and Machiavelli Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The highest good for Aristotle is found in the contemplation of truth. he believed this was the highest portion of man’s nature ; that it was so because of its trust on man’s mind and ground. Thomas Aquinas took the contemplation of truth a brilliant measure farther by contending adult male. through seeking his ultimate terminal. as take parting in the very nature of God. For Aquinas this engagement is the province of Grace. A individual in the province of Grace possesses certain powers. these are referred to as virtuousnesss. More specifically they are infused virtuousnesss that can be separated into two distinguishable sorts: Theological virtuousnesss and Moral ( or Cardinal ) virtuousnesss. Before diging excessively profoundly into the particulars of these virtuousnesss it is of import to set up some land work. Thomas Aquinas defines virtuousness as â€Å"a good wont bearing on activity† . We can besides associate this definition to a good module. viz. wont. Intrinsic to the construct of virtuousness is habit. Habit harmonizing to Thomas can be within the natural order or elevated to the Divine by Grace. Habits are seen as â€Å"stable dispositions† . or qualities. that guide the modules to move a certain manner. Habits can be infused or acquired depending on the module. Of class non every wont is a virtuousness but merely one that guides a module. through the usage of ground. toward the good ; the good being the Ultimate terminal or the Beatific Vision which awaits us when our life here on Earth is over. Aquinas makes a cardinal point about virtuousnesss. The cardinal point made is between what Aquinas refers to as the infused virtuousnesss ( those which are God given and work in us without intervention from the modules of adult male ) and the acquired wonts. When these acquired good wonts become regular pattern for us we call them our â€Å"second nature† . Our 2nd nature leads our actions to flawlessness. Elemental and perfectly necessary for the development of our 2nd nature are ground and will. our mind. The infused virtuousnesss. on the other manus. are a gift from God and are therefore called supernatural because they transcend ground and will ; they are gifts which we can non freely get or run. Among these infused gift virtuousnesss are two sorts: the first are the Theological virtuousnesss ( Faith. Hope. and Charity ) which are concerned straight with God and our ultimate terminal. which are unaided by ground. The theological virtuousnesss supply adult male with the love of God and learn us His will. The 2nd and lesser of the infused virtuousnesss are the moral virtuousnesss. The moral virtuousnesss are concerned with human action and non with God himself. More specifically they are concerned with human behavior. The four moral virtuousnesss ( which are besides called Cardinal virtuousnesss ) are Prudence. Fortitude. Temperance. and Justice. Where the Theological virtuousnesss are tied into the supernatural. the Cardinal virtuousnesss are associated with the natural universe. Among the four Prudence is the highest because it is linked with ground. The rule act of Prudence is the executing of right or good ground. Prudence guides our ground. Examples of this are good judgement and the ability to cover with the unexpected in a good manner. Fortitude is concerned with the ability to cover with what is painful or unpleasant. Temperance is associated with the impulses and cravings for what is enjoyable and eventually Justice towards the will of people. Emphasis must be made on the cardinal difference between the two types of virtuousnesss. Theological virtuousnesss ( covering with the occult ) and Cardinal virtuousnesss ( concerned with the natural ) . A moral virtuousness by definition avoids extremes by manner of the usage of human ground. the theological virtuousnesss transcend ground. The supernatural and natural virtuousnesss are interconnected as Aquinas explains: â€Å"Grace ( the occult ) does non destruct but builds upon nature† . Ultimately mortal man’s modules can be described as holding ground which is enlightened by religion ; this elevates adult male into boundlessly higher fields than other animals. After sufficient discourse and account about Aquinas and virtuousness we come to a hamlets. Some four hundred old ages subsequently a new idea emerges with the deep and fractured ( some would state profoundly fractured ) head of Machiavelli. a adult male who continues to offer so much excessively so many slimey politicians across the Earth. Machiavelli and his position on the human status and more specifically human virtuousness in footings of the political adult male is the 2nd subdivision of our probe. Prior to Machiavelli the position of a political leader ( or Prince. as referred to by Machiavelli ) was much different than his ain reading. A Prince and his functions in respects to political authorization were viewed as rightful merely if the exerting swayer had a strong moral character and was a virtuous individual. A swayer was viewed as making good merely when he sought the good. Rulers had to gain the right to be obeyed and respected. This position of a swayer is called a â€Å"moralistic authority† and is exactly what Machiavelli criticizes in his work titled The Prince. In composing The Prince. Machiavelli sought to snuff out so current positions ( or at least present a radically different position ) of political authorization. Machiavelli preached that there is no moral footing on which to judge the difference between correct or illicit utilizations of power. Rather. whoever has power has the right to command ; since goodness does non guarantee power and the good individual has no more authorization merely because he is good. Good or morality is ineffective in the acquisition and care of power. Obviously this position is in blunt struggle with the thoughts of a moralistic political ideal. For Machiavelli the merely existent concern of the political swayer is the acquisition and care of power entirely and non the common good of the community. Virtue. as had been taught by the philosophers preceding Machiavelli. is really frequently incompatible with his impression of effectual usage of power. This is so because those who are willing to utilize tactics without any moral backup are certain to throw out he who acts harmonizing to his virtuousness and is unwilling to use other. immoral tactics. Harmonizing to Machiavelli the lone confidence that a prince can get the better of the strains of political relations is if he is willing and ready to travel against virtuousness when necessary. This kind of swayer must non be low to utilizing tactics such as slaying. misrepresentation. graft. use. and any other manner of immoral behavior he sees fit if certain state of affairss require it in order to keep ( or addition ) power. For Machiavelli it is precisely this attack to opinion that he sees as the â€Å"virtues† of leading. The usage of any manner necessary to obtain and keep power is virtue. Through this bold attack to opinion we are given an wholly new return on virtuousness and arguably mankind itself. With this new vision of political regulation. purged of any moral influences. we are given a wholly new attack to the exercising of power. It is now rooted in the foundations of de-moralized political relations. This new and audacious attack to â€Å"power politics† is exactly what Machiavelli calls virtuousness. Machiavelli employs this new construct of virtuousness to mention to a scope of qualities a prince will happen necessary to get. in order to â€Å"maintain his state† and to â€Å"achieve great things† . the two necessities of power for him. This makes viciously clear that there is no similarity between conventional Christian virtuousness and Machiavellian virtuousness. One can therefore sum up Machiavelli’s position of what it is to be a virtuous individual as such: A prince above all else must get a â€Å"flexible disposition† . A swayer must be capable of switching his/her actions from good to evil and back once more â€Å"as luck and fortunes dictate† . Precisely how does Machiavellian virtuousness affect the exercising of power? In order to reply this inquiry we must analyze another cardinal rule of his virtuousness. Therefore enters the construct of Fortune. As discussed in Chapter 25 of The Prince. Machiavelli teaches the reader that luck shows itself where virtuousness and wisdom are missing. Fortune harmonizing to Machiavelli is a menace to the security of the province and must be fought against as such. Fortune is a force outside of ground that is wholly unpredictable which brings wretchedness and catastrophe to mankind. As Machiavelli provinces: â€Å"it is better to be hotheaded than cautious. because Fortuna is a adult female and it is necessary. in order to maintain her under. to crush and maul her† . Fortune is therefore viewed as a beginning of force which must be answered with force if one hopes to command it. Virtue is the lone readying one has against luck. Virtue provides the ability to react to fortune whenever and nevertheless necessary. Machiavellian virtuousness affects the exercising of power in everyway. Machiavelli’s construct of virtuousness is wholly integrated with the exercising of power. The effectual and utile exercising of power is virtue. for Machiavelli. The tools and methods a Prince utilizes to demand his bid and guarantee his place are his virtuousnesss. Machiavellian virtuousness is so basically different than true virtuousness. ( virtuousness as defined by Aquinas ) that an surrogate word would do to specify it. When analyzing the two philosophers the differences between them are rather obvious. but one must look deeper than what is given at face value in order to happen the true effects of Machiavellian virtuousness. Once a individual has a basic apprehension and cognition of Machiavelli and his plants one can so come in into brooding thought on him and happen a deeper effect to populating a Machiavellian virtuous life. What is adult male if all that has traditionally defined him has been reduced to mere tools which help him to accomplish an terminal? What is the him of the adult male? If virtuousness does non specify the individual. what does? The greatest defect in Machiavellian virtuousness is that adult male loses his individuality and his character. Virtue has been redefined from that which develops ethical motives and character to that which helps to procure power. Emphasis is now on the power and non the individual. With Machiavelli virtuousness covers merely one facet of the individual. Man as leader and power trader. What is left of the adult male. if there are no longer any specifying traits. if adult male no longer has an individuality? Without any formal individuality adult male is no longer viewed as being â€Å"like God† . the supernatural facet of adult male is gone. that which is our true individuality. We have learned from Thomas Aquinas that virtuousness is developed through wont ; these wonts become who you are. If we remove that. what of the remainder of the adult male? Man is reduced to something of a retainer to â€Å"power† . Aquinas elevates adult male to the supernatural. as existences created in the similitude and image of God. made to portion in the Divinity of God. Aquinas’ virtuousness covers the whole individual. Thomas lists the cardinal virtuousnesss which guide all the facets of human life. from Prudence to Charity and Temperance to Faith. By developing these virtuousnesss we become virtuous people. the virtuousnesss that we cultivate forms who we are and order our desires in line with the will of God. For Aquinas virtuousness leads us to God and our ultimate terminal which Beatific Vision. For Machiavelli virtuousness is merely the agencies of executing a undertaking. instruments that can and should be employed to make an terminal which is merely of this Earth ; viz. the securing and expanding of power. For Machiavelli all that affairs is what is of this universe. Man is reduced to nil more than animate being with mind. nil supernatural and no life here after. As I have antecedently stated above. the greatest defect in Machiavellian virtuousness is that adult male loses his individuality and character. One other obvious and dramatic restriction to Machiavelli’s position of virtuousness. and therefore adult male himself. is that he speaks merely of adult male as swayer. non adult male as provincial. or servant. or adult male in the familial sense. If adult male were to specify himself precisely as Machiavelli proposes. he would genuinely lose his individuality. If virtuousness is redefined than it would look that adult male excessively is redefined. Either Machiavelli missed something so foundational and necessary. such as the other functions people play in society. or his aim was. in specifying virtuousness. to merely redefine the swayer. Machiavelli must hold realized his position of adult male was limited and flawed ; his true purpose was to alter society from the top down. Resulting would be a society that sought merely selfish desires and the acquisition of power. Machiavelli had no interesting apprehension adult male merely to ordain his thoughts and go a Prince. Man in accommodating these new thoughts is making nil less than lead oning himself. Virtue is a really wide subject which deserves rating. If we are to better understand ourselves and our civil society it is imperative that we learn what we can about those people who have. are presently. and will determine our ideas refering ourselves. God. and nature. What I have attempted is to turn to two really different positions on virtuousness. Aquinas continues to be the root beginning of our apprehension of virtuousness. Many efforts have been made by many people to redefine adult male ; Machiavelli is merely one of many. Machiavelli holds the rubric as the first philosopher to whole-heartedly effort to retrace adult male in his ain similitude and image and to extinguish God. As foolish and impossible as that seems from a Christian position. he succeeded and continues to win in winning over new ( non ) trusters. By the very nature of turning off from God we deceive and are deceived. all of his bold new tactics sum to little more than misrepresentation. Deception laced with penetrations and deformed images of adult male. Man every bit viewed as non fallen from Grace but instead nescient to his â€Å"true† capableness and intent. Machiavelli offers us another apple.